The southbound migration is complex. Winter residents are now arriving, migrants are passing through from further north, breeding season residents are departing, and there are vagrants from elsewhere that are only occasionally seen here.

Most notable of the arriving winter residents is the Lapland longspur that Mariah Ben David found at Long Point on Oct. 2. This species is never common and is usually found on our beaches with the yet-to-arrive snow buntings. She also spotted a greater scaup, the first of our winter resident diving ducks.

American pipit — Lanny McDowell

On Oct. 3, Luanne Johnson, Margaret Curtin, and others found an American pipit at Katama Farm. That same day, Bob Shriber visited Gay Head and found 10 great cormorants perched on offshore boulders, while at Squibnocket he found white-winged and black scoters. He also spotted a common eider on Sept. 28 near the Gay Head Cliffs. Bill Prodouz found a common eider at Cape Pogue on Sept. 30.

Winter resident songbirds are also arriving. On Oct. 3, Bob Shriber found a dark-eyed junco and a white-throated sparrow at the Gay Head Cliffs. The day before, I found a dark-eyed junco at Quampeche trail in the State Forest, Also that day, Jim Elder visited Menemsha Hillls and found a white-crowned sparrow. On Oct. 2, he spotted four golden-crowned kinglets.

Now is the season for transient species. Notable are the frequent sightings of blackpoll and yellow-rumped warblers; their presence indicates that the warbler migration peak has passed.

Black-throated blue warbler — Lanny McDowell

These species were seen by Allan Keith at Cape Pogue on Sept. 28; Bob Shriber at Gay Head on Sept. 28 and Oct. 3, and Squibnocket on Sept. 30 and Oct 3; by me in the State Forest on Oct. 2; and by the trio of Susan Whiting, Allan Keith and Bob Shriber on Oct. 2 in Aquinnah. Oct. 3 sightings were by Luanne Johnson in her Oak Bluffs yard and by me at Cedar Tree Neck.

Palm warblers are also later migrants. Susan Whiting saw one at her Quenames bird bath on Oct. 2. The next day, they were seen by Bob Shriber in Gay Head and Jim Suozo at Katama Farm. Margaret Curtin and Luanne Johnson found the eastern and western subspecies at Katama Farm.

Other migrating songbird sightings include Bob Shriber’s Cape May warbler on Sept. 27 and Gay Head on Sept. 28; Philadelphia vireo, blue-headed vireo and yellow-billed cuckoo at Squibnocket on Sept. 28; red-eyed vireo and ovenbird at Gay Head Sept. 28; Philadelphia vireo, ruby-crowned kinglet and redstart at Squibnocket on Sept. 30; and a yellow-breasted chat, ruby-crowned kinglet, black-and-white warbler, redstart and parula warbler at Squibnocket on Oct. 2.

Allan Keith spotted a black-and-white warbler on Sept. 28 at Squibnocket. I spotted one in the State Forest on Oct. 2, and a black-throated blue warbler, cedar waxwings, and pine warblers at Cedar Tree Neck on Oct. 3. Virginia de Laigre spotted a northern parula on Oct. 2. Jim Elder found common yellowthroat and black-throated green warbler on Oct. 2 in Menemsha Hills. Susan Whiting, Allan Keith, and Bob Shriber saw ruby-crowned kinglet, yellow-breasted chat, black and white warbler, redstart and parula warbler on Oct. 3 at Squibnocket.

Species that nested here are still lingering here, although there is a very real possibility that the lingering individuals may be passing through after nesting in more northern areas.

Brown-headed cowbird — Lanny McDowell

Allan Keith found four whimbrels and 16 American oystercatchers at Cape Poge on Sept. 27. Amanda Williams spotted 14 greater yellowlegs, 9 great egret, belted kingfisher and eastern phoebe at Felix Neck on Oct. 2. Walt Looney observed a yellow-bellied sapsucker and red-eyed vireo at Long Point on Oct. 3. Ospreys were observed by

Pam Davey on Chappaquiddick on Sept. 25 and by Lisa Maxfield on the hospital pole on Sept. 29.

Lucy Goeke spotted a green heron at Lighthouse Beach on Oct. 2, along with both a great and a snowy egret. The same day, Virginia de Laigre saw a snowy egret and cedar waxwings at Sheriff’s Meadow Sanctuary. Jim Swozo spotted seven killdeer at Katama Farm on Oct. 3.

A pair of adult bald eagles were seen on Oct. 1 at Snow’s Point on Chappy by Jon Herman and! Lindsay Allison. While golfing at Farm Neck, Anne Whiting, Helen Green and Debi Crews spotted a bald eagle fly overhead, which Barack Obama also saw. Martha Moore spotted one on the Middlepoint Cove osprey pole on Oct. 3.

Peregrine falcons were seen by Bob Shriber and Allan Keith on Sept. 27 at the Gay Head Cliffs. Matt Pelikan spotted one in downtown Edgartown on Sept. 30, the same day he found a merlin along Beach Road. Bill Prodouz spotted a peregrine on Oct. 1 at Norton Point. Luanne Johnson and Margaret Curtin spotted a peregrine and a merlin at the Gay Head Cliffs on Oct. 2.

Hermit thrush — Lanny McDowell

Denise Slaughter saw a Cooper’s hawk over Edgartown harbor on Sept, 30.

David Dee came across at least six bobwhites along the trail at the west end of Swan Pond on Sept. 9. Bill Prodouz saw a brood of bobwhites near the western end of Norton Point on Sept. 28. Matt Born had a pair of wood ducks on an East Pasture Lane pond in Aquinnah recently. In downtown Oak Bluffs, Shea Fee observed two fish crows on Oct. 1.

Well after breeding season, Shea Fee heard woodcock peenting — their courtship display — at Wasque on Sept. 28. Now, that is strange!

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Robert Culbert is an ecological consultant with Nature Watch LLC living in Vineyard Haven.